Successful Learning -HOTS and Motivation) (Module 7 eJournal)

When I think of successful, these questions come to mind:

1.What constitute a successful learning?

2.What is successful learning?

3.How can I continue learning?

4.How can successful learning help me succeed as a person?

As learners, we need motivation, clear instruction, feedback on how to improve and we are given opportunities to perform. Successful learning experience adds value to the learner. The value becomes part of a long-term learning. As a future teacher, I need to help my students understand something that they couldn’t before and make sure that learning is purposeful and put the needs of my learners first.

One thing that strikes me is the HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills). It was my first time to see the term HOTS in my son’s Math activities and I didn’t know anything about it at all. Brookhart (as cited by Collins,2014)  defines higher-order thinking into three categories: (1) those that define higher-order thinking in terms of transfer, (2) those that define it in terms of critical thinking, and (3) those that define it in terms of problem solving. Teachers should be able to tell students what they are doing and to explain why they need higher-order skills which are vital in solving problems at school and in life. It is important for teachers to be able to plan meticulously and make students aware of the key concepts. Scaffolding is teachers’ responsibility to be able to support students at the beginning of a lesson and then gradually turning over responsibility to them to work on their own. Teachers can give variety of examples but they have to check the students’ understanding first before giving additional examples. Visual and concrete examples through drawings, graphs or tables are good ways to demonstrate examples. Like most of the teachers I had, examples were clearly given so learning was more effective and students can formulate questions and active actively. Some teachers talk most of the time without any visual representations make learning and listening challenging and let’s say, boring. Teachers can assess the effect of higher-order thinking skills of their students based on how they perform, construct meaning and incorporate new content. It sounds a successful learning for me if I was the teacher.

Another crucial aspect of successful learning is the motivation. Motivation is defined by Schunk (2012) as “the process of instigating and sustaining goal-directed behavior” (p.346) which is more of cognitive and there are other perspectives about motivation like behavioral, humanistic  and social .As for me, I believe that extrinsic motivations (behavioral)  contributed a lot in my motivation to study. Intrinsic motivation (social learning theory) is also an integral part. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations work together to keep me motivated.  Bonus points were not used when I was in the elementary but bonus points system was heavily utilized when I was in college. Being regarded as the highest scorer or having the perfect score was the usual extrinsic motivator when I was in elementary. To finish top 1 in the honor roll was probably the best motivator. It was a joyful moment when you receive a lot of medals even though most of them had the politician names. In High school, it was more competitive and extra points were rewarded when students passed earlier than the deadline or when they were attentive and more active. My motivation to study remained the same even though I didn’t finish number 1. My goal was to remain in the top 10.Then in college, many things changed. The environment was much different and honestly, I felt intimidated. The classroom itself was completely diverse. Students came from different areas around the Philippines, social statuses and backgrounds were different and some of my classmates were much older and were in the higher year level. These factors were somewhat shocking when I attended my first semester as a college student. But I was not discouraged but got more motivated. I did my best to pass all my subjects but I had so many realizations when I entered college in terms of motivation and learning. For example, successful learning is not just getting high grades but being able to expand my knowledge, gain life changing experiences and to develop myself. Also, motivation in studying takes a lot of challenges and struggles. I mentioned that bonus points were usually given when I was in college. It was either we can pass earlier (to lessen late submissions) or answer bonus questions. These were much helpful in increasing our grades as well as making us more responsible with our requirements and avoid cramming. Staying motivated is due to   bigger reasons/ultimate goals that every person/student has. Some reasons could be to be able finish college and wear that precious sablay/toga, work in a lucrative position, make their parents proud, to be able to help the community, to be able to live independently, etc. We are driven because of our ultimate goals.


Collins, R. (2014) Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking.Curriculum Leadership Journal. Retrieved June 19,2017 from,37431.html?issueID=12910

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.). (2012). Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications. Routledge.

Constructivist Theories and Contemporary Teaching and Learning (Module 6 eJournal)

The theory of constructivism supports the contemporary view of teaching practices.  This theory emphasized that learning is an active process not passive. It promotes active learning and not just spoon-feeding information.  I agree that learning should be real /authentic which means there should be active interaction with the environment not just acquiring skills through drills which is confined with just specific areas.

   Constructivism which is mostly based on Jean Piaget’s and Lev Vygotsky’s works can be categorized as cognitive constructivism and social constructivism. The former one focused on the learner’s cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding while the latter on emphasizes on the collaboration in the production of knowledge and understanding. I have heard of Jean Piaget and his theory about schema, assimilation and accommodation but it’s my first time to learn about Vygotsky and it’s very informative to learn about zone of proximal (ZPD) development, more knowledgeable others and scaffolding.


I am glad to know about equilibrium and cognitive disequilibrium which are new sets of information that I can add to my knowledge about Piaget’s key concepts. That is an application of the concept of assimilation which means to incorporate information to an existing knowledge. Disequilibrium happens when there conflict when we can’t fit in new information so we need to resolve it by creating new experience and reach equilibrium. When I first met the subject Soc Sci 101:Fundamental Statistics for the Social Sciences, it was really challenging because I only have the basic knowledge about simple Algebra or Mathematical equations but not statistics. With the help of lesson discussions, I was able to fit in the new information and reach equilibrium. The concepts of zone of proximal development can also be applied here where I have learned the basics of statistics already but I had so much difficulties understanding the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) which was the main program we used for the subject. So I needed the help of a more knowledgeable other (MKO) which was our instructor. She used scaffolding to discuss with us the program so we can use it smoothly and properly. She produced detailed instructions and then taught us verbally and by modeling on how to use SPSS since every one of us didn’t know this software.  She let us practice before we start and guide us individually before she let us work independently and made our own project.

Constructivism is needed in today’s teaching and learning practices. As a future educator, I can learn how to use the concepts of this theory which I can use in guiding and facilitating my future students. I have to learn more about ZPD to be able to understand students’ ZPD to be able to plan more the instruction I should use for the whole class, small groups and individuals. I also need to continue learning and collaborating with my peers to be able to assimilate and accommodate new ideas.



That Thing Called Memory (Module 5 eJournal)


Learning this module about cognitive theories made me more informed how learning is processed mentally/internally. In terms of learning, I wish I could be a computer that   save and retrieve information easily. I wish that I can retrieve the facts, ideas, theories and mathematical equations. I learned at school because I forgot most of them. With the computer’s ability to save and search information, we can retrieve any information we saved as long as it was not deleted. I just wish that our brain has that function that can be triggered then the whole stored information would just come out completely.

I can remember how first classroom like. I was 6 years old when I entered kindergarten. It was a big room at the second floor filled with many high windows. There were just  simple decorations compared to the kindergarten rooms I have been seeing at the present. Chairs were made of wood and wooden desks. The room was wide enough to accommodate almost 30 children. Outside the room was wide shiny area where adults practice karate after our class. My remotest memory was when I was 5 years old. It was in the morning before lunchtime when my 3 year-old sibling and I were running around our neighbor’s house and then her one foot slipped causing her to slide down to a slightly deep hillside. I was crying and luckily, our neighbor saw the incident so he ran and picked my sibling up. I was scolded by my parents. I couldn’t forget what happened even though it was 24 years ago and this long term memory is a recurring one. This reveals about the fact that often visited long term memory play a role in the strength and duration of a memory (Cherry, 2016). Long term memories can also last up to many decades.

The most used memorizing strategy for me is writing sentences. I write some sentences or words that help me memorize the topics I learned. For example, Albert Bandura is for social learning theory, Piaget for cognitive development, Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs from basic needs to self-actualization. Chunking is also effective like when I group words or categories. When I memorize long numbers, I group them and one group contains three numbers. I also use acronyms to recall list of words. For example, ROYGBIV for the rainbow colors, FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) for coordinating conjunctions and OSASCOMP (opinion, size, age, shape, color, origin, material, purpose) for the order of adjectives. The most effective memorizing strategy and makes me retain the information for a long time is understanding. I can better recall the topics when I clearly understood them. I have to connect and relate them with what I know. For example, when learning about the Philippine regions, I relate them to the products that they produce or to the popular place they have.

Positive experiences and negative experiences affect my ability to remember information. Like the remotest memory I mentioned above, there was a strong negative feeling I had (fear, scared and a little trauma) so I was able to remember it. My kindergarten graduation was not also pleasant because I was playful on my seat so my teacher scolded me and my seatmate was attentive so the extra medal was given to her. Then when I finished Grade 1 being the first honor was probably the first positive experience I had at school. It was also really memorable because I didn’t expect it as well as parents. That moment motivated me to study well and made me conscious about my grades.

Studying one night before the exam was never successful for me so I avoided doing it. It just confused me and affected my understanding of what I have read or learned in the classroom. If I cram before my exam, I would probably just answer the questions using the stored knowledge I have and the things I understood based on my teacher’s discussions and would probably get a low or 75%  score. I’m 90% willing to take an exam that I aced 5 years ago. It was about organizational motivation and I already forgot some of the types of the sources of organizational behavior so I doubt I would ace it again without reviewing them again. My learning goals and strategies have been greatly influenced with how my teachers taught and handle the class, the learning environment (size of class, learning materials) and school and parental supports. I grew up reviewing in a quiet environment so I prefer staying at the library instead of having a group study. Teaching strategies of my teachers also helped me a lot in understanding my lessons. Those teachers who gave different sets of activities helped me get good grades and retain them longer in my memory. Unfortunately, two of my high school teachers employed the same strategy like making us read our textbook then wrote our own notes and no further explanations from them were like a waste of time as I could barely remember topics about those subjects.

Positive and negative consequences occur depending on the teaching practice, learning strategies, instructional design, and school policies and parental support. There is a better learning when teachers are active in using different strategies to suit the needs of their students. Sufficient school materials can also assist students learn better. The students’ learning strategies also help them to learn more. Cramming should not be encouraged and it is much better to pass requirements on time, review days/weeks before the exam and find suitable study area. Instructional designs should also be suitable with the subject matter and the types of learning. School policies should be studied carefully to ensure suitable learning environment and be able to protect both teachers and students. Parental support is also vital in the child’s learning experiences. It means that they should not make their school homework or projects but guide them how to do them correctly. Attending meetings and school events also mean a lot for their children.

Cherry, K.(2016).What is long term memory?. Retrieved May 27,2017 from

Self-Regulation and Distant Learning

It is my first term as a student of a distant learning in UPOU and it is challenging. I am overwhelmed with the activities and I had to lessen my work hours to be able to finish the module activities on time. Fortunately, I am on the right track of following the schedules of the modules of my two subjects. I am now on the fourth module of both subjects. Along with the two subjects, I am also a full time tutor and mother of two boys and currently pregnant so I have to manage and regulate myself strictly. I would like to say that self-regulation is an important behavior to acquire in a distant learning environment.

Self-regulation can be defined as the ability to control and monitor our behavior in a given situation and be able to  develop, implement, and flexibly maintain planned behavior in order to achieve one’s goal, (Brown, Miller and Lawendowski,1999). It is a necessary skill for reliable emotional well-being (Stosny,2011). As an online learner, it is necessary to develop this skill.

How can we acquire and further develop it?

Let us follow the four levels of development introduced by Schunk and  Zimmerman (1997).First is the observation which we can get from modeled or verbal instruction. We try to emulate on other’s experiences on how  they manage to do distant learning. Before we enrolled in our online classes, we had the readiness activity and there were videos of  UPOU alumni sharing their experiences especially in managing and regulating ourselves to be able to accomplish the course on time and properly. It was helpful as it gave me a glimpse on what to expect in distant learning. It is also helpful to search for  videos and blogs about distant online experiences. The next step is emulation is where we try to perform what we learned as we start doing the module activities. The third step is the self-controlled where we try to internalize the situation and apply what we learned from our observations  and emulations. The last one is the  self-regulated level where we now adapt new skills in  performing in our distant learning subjects. We should be able to adjust with the sets of schedules, requirements and activities.

Reciprocal determination comes into play as well because environment affects our behaviors and personal factors. If we are able to regulate ourselves, we will be able to finish our tasks on time along with the influence of our learning environment like positive comments from our teacher and classmates. It would also helpful to have our own models that we can follow and at the same time, we also have to develop our self-efficacy. We can start with specific short-term goals, develop our learning strategies and  enhance our intrinsic motivation.

To help us improve our self-regulation ability, Brown,Miller and Lawendowski  (1999) developed the seven step- self-regulation model  as the foundation of the SRQ(self-regulated questionnaire). These are receiving relevant information, evaluating the information and comparing it to norms, triggering change, formulating a plan, implementing the plan and  assessing the plan’s effectiveness. Although these steps are specifically made to study behaviors, this SRQ is meant to follow the general principles of  the concept. This SRQ was first  introduced in one of my subjects, EDS 111 and I think it is also applicable to our subject, EDS 103.You can check the SRQ  and interpret your score following the instruction. My result was intermediately self-regulated or just two points  higher than  the low self-regulated so I have to work more in following the four development model of self-regulation presented  by  Schunk and Zimmerman.

Note: SRQ

SelfRegulation Questionnaire (SRQ)


Brown,J.M, Miller,W,R and Lawendowski, L.A. (1999). The self-regulation questionnaire.

Schunk, D. H. & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. EducationalPsychologist, 32, 195–208.

Stonsky, S. (2011). Self-Regulation. Retrieved  May 20,2017 from

Experiences From the Past Influenced By the Behaviorist Approaches (Module 3 eJournal)

Behavioral approaches have been influential to our behaviors more than we recognized.

Let me start with the  predominant practices at home when I was still with my family of orientation and with my family of procreation. When I was younger, together with my siblings, every time we hear our mother shout early in the morning, we had to wake up as soon as possible. We can apply the theory of Law of Effect in this behavior. When we woke up at 5 am, we were able to finish our breakfast early and could go to school soon. This behavior was enhanced due to the positive consequences like getting praised for being obedient by our parents, we could go to school early, received the special award of being the “Most Punctual” at the end of the school year and the one that we loved the most, we could play in our school ground for quite amount of time before the bell rang for the flag ceremony. With my family of procreation, reward and punishment are usually done when dealing with unfavorable behaviors. When my kids play with their food, they won’t be able to watch TV or play games on weekends. This behavior is punished so it is weakened and they try to avoid it and it is diminishing. If they behave well, they receive longer watching or playing time.

Now, I want to recall the behaviorist approaches that have been used to modify my behaviors. There were positive as well as unpleasant experiences. I didn’t know how to play any sports at all but when I was Grade 4, my class adviser encouraged me to play volleyball. She showed me how to serve the ball correctly even when though I failed many times. I only heard positive words from her like ‘keep trying or you can do it”. She was much delighted and proud when I was able to serve the ball across the net.  That moment helped me gain confidence and interest to start playing volleyball. The encouragement and trust given by my teacher made me love sports and able to represent my school in sports competitions.  It was also a pleasant experience to learn how to cook rice well when I was 10 years old. I didn’t want to but I was able to learn it well since I am the eldest and I must help my parents with household chores. Seeing   my parents happy and praised me as a responsible “manang” (elder sister) made me repeat that action and eventually mastered it.

Some experiences were unpleasant. I developed the fear of plugging appliances when I almost got  electrocuted when I was about 11 years old. I didn’t plug any electrical cord since then and I would ask other people (especially friends and relatives) to do it if I want to use an appliance. Then I went to college and with new environment, I had to plug appliances by myself but I was extremely scared. I  tried and hold the chord with a cloth(thinking it would protect me from being electrocuted because it  is an insulator)    but it still sparked so  it strengthened my fear of plugging. I met my boyfriend (now husband) taking up engineering and he helped me how to overcome it in a way by continuously showing it how to do it correctly and carefully. I learned to check if the computer’s AVR is turned off before plugging the chord to avoid a sudden spark and I must stop shaking when holding the chord because it is coated with an insulator so I won’t be electrocuted. It was still unpleasant because I can’t control shaking but eventually I was able to overcome it and do this action without worrying but being careful. My drawing skills never improved even though we learned some basic drawing steps at school. One reason, maybe was that my drawings were often ridiculed so it discouraged me to do improve it  and another reason would be the fact that art related activity is my weakness and I am better at sports (Multiple Intelligences by Gardner).

Finally, behaviors can be regulated and modified at home or at school if we can properly implement the behaviorist approaches. For positive behaviors, rewards are effective when schedules of reinforcement  are implemented. Giving praises all the time or every after positive behavior may result to “satiation”( Krumboltz & Krumboltz,1972) wherein the appeal  or influence of the stimulus will decrease because of the repeated  and expected presentation. We can use the partial reinforcements like receiving chocolate bars when we got high quiz scores in one of my college subjects. We didn’t know when we would receive as the teacher wouldn’t give some every time we had quizzes. When I was in college, policies were introduced including punishments at the first day of classes One popular punishment was to capture the cellphone of the student using it inside the classroom and would  be only returned by the teacher at the end of the semester. During my four-year stay in college, only 2 cellphones were captured so discouraging this behavior was effective. Plagiarism and cheating  ar high  discouraged which can be punished the most severely like receiving  a grade of 5 (Fail) or can result to expulsion.  These kinds of punishments highly discourage such behaviors.  As a parent, when my kids  are already naughty and see me holding the broom, they would stop and  settle down because they  have associated fear with the broom as a tool of punishment.

I would say that reinforced behaviors can last until we age and some would extinct because of undesirable experiences with it. Getting up and doing things early started when I was young and I still do now  that I am an adult, on the other hand, I give up knowing how to draw because of the unpleasant emotion I had because of it.


Krumboltz, J., & Krumboltz, H. (1972). Changing children’s behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall.

A Better Understanding of Theories of Learning (Module 2 eJournal)


One of the most controversial topics is intelligence not just in the area of Psychology but in many fields as well including education. The definition of intelligence alone keeps on evolving. I agree with that effective adaptation plays an important role in understanding intelligence. There are many theories about intelligence that can be  grouped into 4, (1) psychometric theories; (2) cognitive theories; (3) cognitive contextual theories; and (4) biological theories (Gardner,2012).


The most familiar with me is Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences.  I even consider myself to be the Bodily-kinesthetic type. There are some criticisms against his theory especially from the psychometrics theorists but Gardner’s purpose is to convince psychometricians that there are broader ways of conceiving intelligence (Armstrong,2009). Upon reading about him and his theory, there are some ways that can be adapted in relation to his theory. For example, we can utilize several teaching materials like stories, arts, role play, diagrams and games in order to reach students with different learning ways. We can also try to at least individualize our teaching method to students because one-style-fits-all may not work with some students.

I am glad to know about fluid and crystallized intelligences. I agree that both of these increase from childhood to adolescence  and that fluid intelligence declines at around 30-40  years of but crystallized intelligence continues to develop throughout adulthood. Why does fluid intelligence tend to decline during late adulthood? It is because of the age-related degeneration of the right cerebellum as it controls fine motor skills. (Horn and Donaldson,1980).I believe that as we grow older, we become wiser because of our crystallized intelligence. I am open to improving these intelligences by brain training to improve my fluid intelligence and to improve my working memory to be better in cognitive exams (crystallized intelligence).


One of the things I found exciting when I entered college was taking the psychometric tests including IQ test. The results were part of our one on one consultation with the school’s guidance counselor as part of the freshmen orientation. It was first time to take it and the result showed that I got a score of 105 which is under the average intelligence then came 4th year, I took an IQ test again and I got the same IQ score which for me, it means, IQ’s level interpretation may not change but I can gain more experiences as I grow older. I strongly agree with my son’s schools  interpretation of the Intelligence Scale they administer yearly ;that a high IQ level means that one has a lot of potential can learn school concepts quickly while a low IQ can probably do as much, but needs to take more time and effort. My son’s result since Grade 1 until now, Grade 4 is at the Superior category. But as a parent, we need to remember that intelligence may play an important role in school achievement; but it could not be only because of their intelligence but many factors such as motivation, quality of instruction, family resources and parental support, peer group expectations ,and others are also involved.


Learning and understanding of theories of intelligence are vital in our career as future teachers. It is challenge to continue learning  them to become an integral part of  ours.  I would like to end with the a quote  from Laurence J. Peter, ‘the best intelligence test is what we do with our leisure” .



Armstrong,A. (2009).Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom,3rd Ed. ASCD, USA.

Horn,L and  Donaldson,G . (1980) Cognitive development in adulthood O.G. Brim, J. Kagan (Eds.), Constancy and change in human development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1980), pp. 445–529

Gardner, M. (2012) The Oxford Handbook of School Psychology. Retrieved May 6,2017 from


A.How have myself (i.e,the teacher candidate) learned in school,how do I learn the most effectively? Why do some people learn better than I and I better than others?

As a learner,I am visual-linguistic and kinesthethic.Silverman (1989) mentioned that visual  learners   learn  most efficiently through written language like reading and tasks.When I was a classroom student, I liked sitting in front so I can listen well to my teachers and see what’s on the blackboard as I take down notes and doodle.I can simply utilize an eye-hand coordination .  I can easily remember things  if  I continuously write words, phrases and mnemonics  when studying. Listening to my teachers  without doing these would let me not to understand the topic discussed. This way of learning made me understand my lessons well so I often got  high scores on exams especially with multiple choices and essays.I also like sports and physical activities so I can process  and come up with ideas when I am in motion. As much as possible, I use deep learning approach  and I usually employ deductive as the direction of my learning as I want to know the general terms first before going to the specifics.  On the other hand, logical learners are much better than me because they can work with problems systematically as they can recognize patterns easily and make connections among them. I struggled a lot with my Math subjects  because I can’t memorize formula or process the Mathematical problem unless the formula or solution is given.


B.How do we know if a person has successfully learned? 
Can you suggest a “fairer definition” of learning and academic achievement? 

A person has  successfully learned if he/she is able to apply the learning she/he had. Putting ideas, concepts and ideas into practice solidify the foundation of knowledge imparted to the learners. As mentioned in one of the reading materials, the idea of “knowing that and knowing-how” imply that it is not enough to know the rule (knowing-that)  but we should be able to know how to put it into practice (knowing-how) (Smith,2003) .Being able to share and exchange ideas also  make the learning effective. For me, learning and academic achievement can be measured on how the person able to apply and share the things he/she learned. As a teacher candidate,there should be open communication between my students and I  to be able to know if they  learn something successfully. It is a big  chance to be more understood by my  future students and understand them as well.

C.Christa McAuliff e’s quote: “I touch the future. I teach.”
Put on your creative-thinking hat and come up with one or more brief statements that describe positive aspects of teaching.

Teachers as change catalyst.

Inspire. Build. Motivate.Nurture. Teachers.

Sleepless nights+ Overworked+Dedication=Well-informed, Responsible and Successful Students

D.After some thinking, write a personal statement about the following: What kind of teacher do you want to become? What strengths do you want to have? What kinds of potential weaknesses might you need to overcome?

I want to be the best teacher that my students can have. Imparting them knowledge and skills will not  be enough but guiding them throughout to explore, explain and utilize the knowledge we learned will be the most important objective for me. I have the diligence to prepare and finish my tasks earlier. This strength will help me prepare the most useful learning materials for my students. My bachelor’s and master’s degrees  can help me deal with different set of learners using the theories I learned from my courses. I want to have  patience in handling more than 40 students coming from different backgrounds. I need to overcome slight stage fright as I have to improve my speaking abilities in front of a crowd. I also need to be less emotional because I have to appear composed and professional in front of my students.

E.(From what you have experienced in this introductory module, what do you anticipate for the rest of the term?  How do you envision the course will proceed?)

I am very thankful for the organized and easy to follow procedures on how to accomplish each module with the help of the  Tick Box. Materials are provided and easy to follow. I am anticipating for  robust discussions, helpful references and blog entries. This course will be successful in introducing us the Theories of Learning that will be essential in our pursuit of becoming a teacher.

F.What phenomena (events, situations, or conditions) might you be interested in to investigate? How would you state your hypothesis? What research method do you think will be appropriate?

I am interested  if  e-learners learn effectively  through online education (as we know that learning is subjective and most of us studied in a classroom setting for more than 15 years). My hypothesis would be learning online can be as effective as of classroom setting. I would employ survey and case study methods so I can get a lot of information and data that will be integral in generating the result of my study.


I am very enthusiastic and looking forward to learn more in this subject as I am adjusting with the online education system.



Silverman, L. K. (1989). The visual-spatial learner. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth34(1), 15-20.

Smith, M. K. (2003). ‘Learning theory’. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education.